Challenging the Long-Term Athlete Development Model

Are you tired of hearing about the long-term athlete development model? Did you ever think writing out a whole season plan was a waste of time? Well, we’ve got some good news for you. In this blog, we’re going to take a fresh and exciting look at the long-term athlete development model (LTAD). We’ll explore the challenges and problems associated with these models, including their inherent linearity, the emphasis on early specialization, the neglect of individual differences, and the “one size fits all” approach. But that’s not all. We’ll also discuss the alternative to LTAD models and how adopting a more flexible and individualized approach to athlete development can create a positive environment that encourages player development and team success. So, get ready to learn something new and exciting about long term athlete development.

Long-Term Athlete Development models have long been hailed as the holy grail of cultivating athletic excellence. Yet, beneath the surface of these seemingly structured pathways lies a complex web of challenges and problems. Using academic research papers, it will be demonstrated how the non-linear nature of athlete development defies the neatly outlined progression these models propose.

The Problem with Long Term Athlete Development Model

  • The Myth of Linearity: One of the primary issues with LTAD models is their inherent linearity. These models suggest that athlete development follows a structured, predictable path from novice to elite. However, academic research paints a different picture. A study by Balyi and Hamilton (2004) highlights that the developmental process for athletes is rarely linear. They argue that athletes can experience periods of stagnation, regression, or sudden breakthroughs that disrupt the linear progression advocated by LTAD models.
  • Early Specialization vs. Late Specialization: LTAD models often emphasize the importance of early specialization in a single sport, claiming it’s the key to elite success. However, this view is contested. A study by Côté and Lidor (2013) suggests that early specialization may lead to burnout, increased risk of overuse injuries, and a limited skill set. Their research argues for a more balanced, multi-sport approach to athlete development.
  • Neglecting Individual Differences: Another critical critique of LTAD models is their tendency to treat all athletes as if they were identical cogs in a machine. A study by Martindale et al. (2010) points out that athletes have diverse backgrounds, motivations, and learning styles. Ignoring these individual differences can hinder an athlete’s growth and development.
  • The “One Size Fits All” Approach: LTAD models provide a standardized framework for athlete development, but they often fail to consider that athletes don’t fit neatly into predetermined categories. In a study by Gulbin et al. (2013), researchers argue that a rigid LTAD model may not accommodate late bloomers or those who thrive in unconventional pathways. The real world, they contend, is far messier than these models acknowledge.
  • Non-Linear Learning and Skill Acquisition: One of the most significant challenges to LTAD models is the recognition that learning and skill acquisition are non-linear processes. A study by Davids et al. (2008) highlights that athletes learn and develop skills in dynamic, ever-changing environments. This non-linearity challenges the notion that athletes can progress through stages in a linear fashion, as LTAD models suggest.
  • The Risk of Over-Coaching: LTAD models can also contribute to over-coaching, where athletes are pushed too hard, too soon. A study by Schempp et al. (2006) argues that such an approach can stifle creativity, intrinsic motivation, and the development of decision-making skills. Overemphasis on structured development can hinder the athlete’s ability to adapt and innovate in unpredictable game situations.

Supporting Research Against the Long-Term Athlete Development Model

We are including research in this blog disputing LTAD models to provide a comprehensive and informative perspective on the topic. Academic research has highlighted several challenges and problems associated with LTAD models, including their inherent linearity, the emphasis on early specialization, the neglect of individual differences, and the “one size fits all” approach. Moreover, some researchers have disputed the validity of LTAD models and their value in driving how we develop athletes. By including research in this blog, we aim to provide a balanced view of the topic and help coaches make informed decisions about athlete development.

LTAD models have been advocated for the past two decades as a way to improve the quality of sport programs. However, there are several challenges and problems associated with LTAD models. According to a study published in PLOS ONE, practitioners responsible for delivering long-term athletic development struggle with knowledge, adherence, practices, and challenges. Another study published in Frontiers in Psychology highlighted the challenges that LTAD programs face, including competition between different sports and sports clubs, lack of integration between education, health, sport and recreation systems, and lack of knowledge, education, and time. Moreover, some researchers have disputed the validity of LTAD models and their value in driving how we develop athletes.

For instance, a research paper published in PLOS ONE argued that the learning process does not generally follow continuous linear progressions of behavior but rather involves sudden discontinuous changes over time3. This suggests that athlete development cannot follow a linear outline. Instead, it should be viewed as a nonlinear process that involves dynamic interactions among constraints in the evolution of movement behaviors.

long term athlete development model chart

What is the Alternative to Long-Term Athlete Development Model?

The alternative to LTAD models is a more flexible and holistic approach to athlete development. This alternative approach acknowledges that athlete development is not a one-size-fits-all journey and recognizes the importance of individualization, adaptability, and the dynamic nature of skill acquisition.

Here are key elements of this alternative approach and how it can benefit coaches in player development:

  • Individualized Development Plans: Instead of adhering to rigid LTAD stages, coaches can create individualized development plans for each athlete. This involves assessing each athlete’s unique strengths, weaknesses, goals, and learning styles. With personalized plans, coaches can tailor training programs to maximize each athlete’s potential.
  • Non-Linear Progression: Recognizing that athlete development is rarely linear, coaches can embrace the idea that progress may involve periods of stagnation, regression, or breakthroughs. This perspective allows coaches to be patient and supportive during athletes’ developmental journeys, reducing the pressure to conform to predefined timelines.
  • Multi-Sport Exposure: Encouraging athletes to participate in multiple sports, especially during their formative years, can provide a broader range of experiences and skill sets. Exposure to different sports can lead to improved overall athleticism, creativity, and a reduced risk of burnout.
  • Balanced Emphasis: Instead of overemphasizing early specialization in a single sport, coaches can strike a balance between skill development and overall physical literacy. This approach helps athletes develop a wide range of athletic attributes, making them more adaptable and resilient in various sports situations.
  • Psychological Well-being: Fostering athletes’ psychological well-being, including their mental toughness, resilience, and intrinsic motivation, becomes a crucial aspect of development. Coaches can create a positive and supportive training environment that encourages athletes to enjoy the process of improvement.
  • Skill-Based Coaching: Prioritizing skill development and decision-making over rigid systems and tactics allows athletes to become more versatile and adaptable in competitive situations. Coaches can focus on teaching athletes to read the game, make quick decisions, and adjust to ever-changing scenarios.
  • Feedback and Communication: Maintaining open lines of communication with athletes and involving them in the decision-making process empowers them to take ownership of their development. Coaches can provide constructive feedback and work collaboratively with athletes to set goals and track progress.
  • Periodization and Rest: Coaches can implement effective periodization strategies to manage training loads and incorporate adequate rest and recovery. This helps prevent overtraining, injuries, and burnout, ensuring athletes can sustain long-term development.

The alternative to LTAD models prioritizes adaptability, individualization, and a more holistic approach to athlete development. Coaches who embrace this approach can better cater to the unique needs of their athletes, foster a love for the sport, and help them reach their full potential, all while reducing the risks associated with overemphasis on rigid developmental models. Ultimately, it allows coaches to better nurture well-rounded, resilient, and motivated athletes.


The long-term athlete development model provides a framework for athlete development, they have many flaws and challenges. Academic research papers have questioned their validity and the applicability of their linear, one-size-fits-all approach. Understanding the non-linear nature of athlete development, considering individual differences, and promoting a more holistic, adaptable approach may be the keys to fostering the next generation of elite athletes effectively. It’s time to recognize that athlete development is as unique and unpredictable as the games they play.


  1. Lloyd, R. S., McCormack, S., Williams, G., Baker, J., & Eisenmann, J. C. (2022). Optimising long-term athletic development: An investigation of practitioners’ knowledge, adherence, practices and challenges. PLOS ONE, 17(1), e0262995.
  2. Till, K., Williams, G., Baker, J., & Eisenmann, J. C. (2019). Challenges and opportunities in developing talent: The UK experience. Frontiers in Psychology, 10, 1564.
  3. Davids, K., Araújo, D., & Brymer, E. (2013). Designing affordances for health-enhancing physical activity and exercise in sedentary individuals. Journal of Sports Sciences, 31(12), 1279–1285.
  4. Davids, K., Button, C., & Bennett, S. J. (2008). Dynamics of skill acquisition: A constraints-led approach. Human Kinetics.
  5. Balyi, I., & Hamilton, A. (2004). Long-term athlete development: Trainability in childhood and adolescence. Windows of opportunity: Optimal trainability. Victoria, BC: National Coaching Institute British Columbia & Advanced Training and Performance Ltd.
  6. Côté, J., & Lidor, R. (2013). Hackneyed or still cutting-edge? Early specialization in youth sport. International Journal of Sport Science & Coaching, 8(1), 1-4.
  7. Martindale, R. J. J., Collins, D., & Daubney, J. (2010). Talent development: A guide for practice and research within sport. Quest, 62(4), 373-389.
  8. Gulbin, J. P., Croser, M. J., Morley, E. J., & Weissensteiner, J. R. (2013). An integrated framework for the optimisation of sport and athlete development: A practitioner approach. Journal of Sports Sciences, 31(12), 1319-1331.

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